Trump

難民問題 Trump 面對乜挑戰

Trump 似乎係一個言出必行嘅總統,而且做嘢雷厲風行,只不過, Trump啲承諾係唔係咁易兌現,喺美國乜都講check and balance嘅憲政下, Trump想做嘅嘢,唔係吓吓咁順手,好似依家有兩個伊拉克難民嘅代表律師,就入稟法院JR Trump嘅決定。

Trump 啲做法未必合憲

美國嘅JR同英國嘅JR最大唔同係,英國由於無成文憲法,同埋國會無上論嘅設計,所以法院唔會就一啲具爭議性嘅事,隨便推翻政府嘅結果,除非有《歐洲人權公約》撐腰另計。但美國憲法嘅JR,係憲法條文至上,法院係唔怕推翻國會或總統嘅決定,法院嘅責任就係捍衛憲法嘅一字一句。

美國憲法第十四修正條款,一般叫Due Process Clause係咁寫

All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

美國憲法喺第十四修正條款,係好講大憲章精神,就算依家美國免簽計劃,有個好霸道嘅條款,話如果你係免簽入境,可以唔俾你上訴趕你出境,都係因為免簽以外,你可以揀申請簽證,同埋你用得免簽,係自願放棄上訴權利,寫得好清楚。如果你係持簽證入境,就一定俾你上訴,原因就係第十四修正條款。咁依家 Trump嘅行政指令,係唔係due process of law同埋equal protection of the laws先,基本上,呢個係有得拗,而且美國人好重視呢個原則,所謂嘅保守派最高法院法官,都唔可以做啲太離題萬丈嘅決定,否則美國一早就變咗明光社國家,就唔會有啲州反墮胎,反同性婚姻,但有啲州墮胎、同性婚姻、大麻都接受到。

所以呢次係有官司睇,針對難民,甚至non-Citizen權利上,Due Process Clause可以有幾強,呢次係一次重大考驗。

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